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United States: The 5th National Climate Assessment.

Today is Wednesday, December 20, 2023.

According to the United States (US) government "The Fifth National Climate Assessment is the US Government’s preeminent report on climate change impacts, risks, and responses. It is a congressionally mandated interagency effort that provides the scientific foundation to support informed decision-making across the United States.".

A serious report prepared by experts from about 14 US agencies and divided into 5 chapters:

- Addressing climate change;

- Experiencing climate change;

- Current and future risks;

- Determining the future; and

- A resilient nation.

Let's see some conclusions:

- Changes in multiple aspects of climate are apparent in every US region.

Warming is apparent in every region. The number of warm nights per year (days with minimum temperatures at or above 21°C / 70°F) is increasing everywhere except the Northern Great Plains, where they have decreased, and in Alaska, where nights above 21°C / 70°F are not yet common. Average annual precipitation is increasing in most regions, except in the Northwest, Southwest, and Hawai, where precipitation has decreased. Heavy precipitation events are increasing everywhere except Hawai and the US Caribbean, with a decreasing trend. Relative sea levels are increasing along much of the US coast except in Oregon, Washington, and Alaska, where there is a mix of both increases and decreases, over 1990–2020.

- Every fraction of a degree of additional warming leading to increasing risks across sectors: water supply, food security, infrastructure, heatlh and well-being, economy, livelihoods and heritage.

- People born in North America in 2020, on average, will be exposed to more climate-related hazards compared to people born in 1965.

- Although climate benefits from even the most aggressive emissions cuts may not be detectable before the middle of the century, there are many other potential near-term benefits and opportunities: low-carbon energy jobs, improved air quality, more options for adaptation, reduced risks to ecosystems and to biodiversity, and health, economic and social benefits.

According to the report, US emissions have declined from their peak in 2007. "Recent growth in the capacities of wind, solar, and battery storage technologies is supported by rapidly falling costs of zero- and low-carbon energy technologies, which can support even deeper emissions reductions. For example, wind and solar energy costs dropped 70% and 90%, respectively, over the last decade, while 80% of new generation capacity in 2020 came from renewable sources".

There is also another interesting part about economic opportunities of mitigation and adaptation actions. We quote:

"Public and private measures—such as climate financial risk disclosures, carbon offset credit markets, and investments in green bonds—can avoid economic losses and improve property values, resilience, and equity. However, climate responses are not without risk. As innovation and trade open further investment opportunities in renewable energy and the country continues to transition away from fossil fuels, loss and disposal costs of stranded capital assets such as coal mines, oil and gas wells, and outdated power plants are expected. Climate solutions designed without input from affected communities can also result in increased vulnerability and cost burden."

About more towards the end of the report, an important reference to carbon capture:

"Most US net-zero scenarios require CO2 removal from the atmosphere to balance residual emissions, particularly from sectors where decarbonization is difficult. In these scenarios, nuclear and hydropower capacity are maintained but not greatly expanded; natural gas–fired generation declines, but more slowly if coupled with carbon capture and storage.".

These were just a few "appetizers" from what is included. About "hydrogen", only 2-3 references.

Click at the image below for this extensive online report, with about 80 pages.


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“Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.”

“I am among those who think that science has great beauty”

Madame Marie Curie (1867 - 1934) Chemist & physicist. French, born Polish.

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